The River Hull is a navigable river in the East Riding of Yorkshire in the north of England. It rises from a series of springs to the west of Driffield, and enters the Humber estuary at Kingston upon Hull. Following a period when the Archbishops of York charged tolls for its use, it became a free navigation. The upper reaches became part of the Driffield Navigation from 1770, after which they were again subject to tolls, and the section within the city of Hull came under the jurisdiction of the Port of Hull, with the same result.
Most of the bridges which cross the River Hull are movable, to allow shipping to pass. There are six swing bridges; four bascule bridges, two of which have twin leaves, one for each carriageway of the roads which they carry; and three Scherzer lift bridges, which are a type of rolling bascule bridge. Scott Street Bridge, which is now permanently raised, was originally powered from a high pressure water main maintained by the first public power distribution company in the world.
History : River Hull Footbridge
The river Hull has served as a navigation and a drainage channel, and has been subject to the conflicts that this usually creates, as water levels need to be raised for navigation, but lowered for efficient drainage. In 1213, the Archbishops of York laid claim to the river, and declared their right to navigate on a 24-foot (7.3 m) channel. A number of fish-weirs made navigation difficult, and the Archbishop negotiated their removal in 1296, so that a wharf could be established at Grovehill to serve the town of Beverley. By 1321, river rights had been extended to the charging of tolls. One-third of a shilling (1.7 p) was charged for each bushel carried on the river between Emmotland and the Humber, but the merchants of Hull were unhappy with this; eventually the river had free navigation, and goods could be carried on it without toll. The Arram Beck was also exempt from all tolls. It has remained free, except for 1 mile (1.6 km) from the mouth, which is part of the Port of Hull and is under the control of Hull Corporation.
The outlet of the river onto the Humber is thought to have changed in the early medieval period. The original outlet has been identified at a place called Limekiln creek. A second channel Sayers creek was cut or widened, with both outlets existing simultaneously at one point. Limekiln creek was subsequently reduced in flow to the level of a drain.
The Hull and Barnsley Railway Bridge, built in 1885
The lower River Hull was bordered by salt marshes in medieval times, when efforts were first made to drain them. Further upstream, channels were cut through the fens in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries by the monks of Meaux Abbey, primarily to enable travel by boat, but these gradually became part of the drainage system. John Smeaton, when asked by the merchants of Driffield to advise on ways to allow keels to reach their town, suggested a small cut of about 1.2 miles (1.9 km) including one lock, from the River Hull near Wansford. The merchants sought a second opinion, and John Grundy, Jr. suggested a much longer canal, running for 5 miles (8.0 km) from Fisholme on the Frodingham Beck. When fully opened in 1770, the new route was some 3 miles (4.8 km) shorter than the river, which follows an extremely winding course in its upper reaches. The river above Aike was now considered to be part of the Driffield Navigation, and tolls were charged for its use.
Although beyond their jurisdiction, the Navigation commissioners attempted to extend their powers, to improve the river hull below the junction with Aike Beck. They particularly wanted to replace the stone river hull Bridge, near Beverley, with a swing bridge, which would make it easier for keels to reach Frodingham bridge. The Corporation of Beverley objected, because the bridge was the main route of communication between Beverley and Holderness, and the commissioners instead dredged parts of the river hull to improve access. Plans to improve Hull Bridge were again resisted by Beverley Corporation in 1799, but an agreement was finally reached in 1801, and an Act of Parliament was obtained in July of that year. William Chapman acted as engineer, as the act authorised the construction of towpaths, a new cut between Bethels Bridge and the lock at Struncheon river hull , to avoid a long loop in the river, and rebuilding of the bridge. The bridge cost £500, half of which was met by Richard Bethell, the owner of the Leven Canal, on condition that the tolls for passing through it were reduced significantly.
UK’s River Hull Footbridge
The steel River Hull Footbridge could be the world’s first footbridge that rotates to open or close for river hull traffic while pedestrians are still on it. The beautiful prefab structure designed by London-based McDowell + Benedetti spans the River Hull in Yorkshire and takes about two minutes to fully open or close. It will connect the city center with the eastern development, acting as both an important infrastructural urban element and a new civic landmark.
- Architects : McDowell + Benedetti
- Location : Hull, UK
- Main Contractor : Qualter Hall
- Structural Consultants : Alan Baxter Associates
- M&E Engineer : Qualter Hall
- Lighting Consultant : Sutton Vane Associates
- Landscape Architect : Grontmij
- Public Art/Sound : Nayan Kulkarni, NK Projects (UK) Ltd
- Civil Design : HBPW LLP
- Civils Bridge : A Torn Construction
- Civils Landscaping : Jackson Civil Engineering
Structure: River Hull Footbridge
The structure consists of a steel spine cantilevering around from a 3-dimensional braced ring structure approximately 16m in diameter. The spine is a hybrid structure with the ‘root’ section conceived as a diagrid/shell structure and the tip as a shell structure. Steel plates clad the surface of the walkways whilst horizontal bracing provides additional longitudinal stiffness. The ring/drum/hub structure consists of columns connected to horizontal steel “wheel” structures forming both levels of the 3D ring. The circular hub section acts as a counterbalance to the cantilever section, with heavy RC slabs at both levels of the 3D ring structure. Braced frames provide stability of the ring structure. The hub is supported vertically on a central pintle and six single / four double wheel assemblies running on a 16m diameter flat circular track, secured to a concrete drum supported on ten 1.6m dia. piles over 30m long.
The bridge is supported on a series of wheels running on a circular 16m diameter track below the hub, like a railway turntable. Three electric bevel gear units drive the bridge which pivots around a central slew bearing. The bridge is operated from a radio pendant. The whole sequence takes around 2 minutes. The bridge operator closes a gate at the East bank triggering the opening of the bridge. There are no barriers at the west bank so people can freely walk on and off while it is in motion. The speed of rotation at that edge is slow – less than 0.15m/sec, (less than half the speed of the London Eye) so can be stepped across safely.
Bank of the Bridge : River Hull Footbridge
The west bank of the bridge, which leads to the Old Town and is part of the Old Town Conservation Area, has been re-landscaped by Grontmij. A car park along Scale Lane Staith has been replaced with a series of informal ‘garden rooms’ stepping up to the river side.(with its increased flood defence level) and leading to a new paved square which will eventually provide space for al fresco seating for the restaurant. The original cobbles of the original staith have been retained and re-laid. A green wall of planting will provides a cohesive edge and screen the adjacent building once it matures. On the east bank, pending future redevelopment of the riverside site, a temporary ramped path has been laid which orientates pedestrians to river hull main visitor attraction the Deep.
GETTING THERE – HULL, UK
Bulgaria Air, Air Astana, Air Mauritius, Air New Zealand, All Nippon Airways, Dragon Air, Japan Airlines, Malindo Air, Aegean Airlines are the flights available to reach Hull, England, UK.
Belfast Flights, Birmingham Flights, Bristol Flights, Cambridge Flights, Dundee Flights, Agra Flights, Agatti Island Flights, Aizawl Flights, Ahmedabad Flights are the flights available to reach Hull, England, UK.